Immunological profile of antivenoms: preclinical analysis of the efficacy of a polyspecific antivenom through antivenomics and neutralization assays
Gutiérrez, José María
Calvete Chornet, Juan José
Pla Ferrer, Davinia
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Parenteral administration of animal-derived antivenoms constitutes the mainstay in the treatment of snakebite envenomings. Despite the fact that this therapy has been available for over a century, the detailed understanding of the neutralizing and immunoreactivity profiles of the majority of antivenoms is pending. Currently, a combination of preclinical neutralization tests and ‘antivenomics’, i.e. a proteomic-based assessment of antivenom immunoreactivity, provides a powerful analytical platform to investigate the preclinical efficacy of antivenoms. In this review, the studies performed on the polyvalent antivenom manufactured by Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Costa Rica, are summarized. This antivenom is prepared by immunizing horses with a mixture of the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys, and is used in Central America for the treatment of envenomings by viperid species. Overall, the antivenom shows a widespread pattern of immunological reactivity against homologous and heterologous venoms, which correlates with its ability to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, coagulant, defibrinogenating, phospholipase A2 and proteinase activities of viperid venoms. At the same time, antivenomics detected several venom components against which the antivenom shows only partial or negligible immunorecognition, such as low molecular mass vasoactive peptides, disintegrins, and some phospholipases A2, P-I metalloproteinases and serine proteinases. Such information can be used to design strategies for enhancing the antibody response of horses against poorly immunogenic, toxicologically-relevant venom components in order to further improve the efficacy of this antivenom.
artículo (arbitrado) -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones Clodomiro Picado. 2014. este documento es privado debido a limitaciones de derechos de autor.