Neutralization of four Peruvian Bothrops sp. snake venoms by polyvalent antivenoms produced in Perú and Costa Rica: preclinical assessment
Rojas Umaña, Ermila
Rojas Céspedes, Gustavo
Gutiérrez, José María
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Envenomations after bites inflicted by snakes of the genus Bothrops constitute a public health hazard in Perú, and the intravenous administration of equine-derived antivenoms represents the only scientifically validated treatment. This study presents a preclinical assessment of the efficacy of two whole IgG antivenoms, prepared in Perú and Costa Rica, to neutralize the most relevant toxic effects induced by the venoms of Bothrops atrox, B. brazili, B. barnetti and B. pictus from Perú. Peruvian antivenom is produced by immunizing horses with Bothrops sp. venoms from this country, whereas the production of Costa Rican antivenom involves immunization with venoms from Central American snakes. The neutralization of lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, myotoxic, coagulant and defibrinating activities was evaluated in assays involving incubation of venom and antivenom prior to testing. Both antivenoms were effective in the neutralization of these effects, with quantitative variations in the values of effective dose 50% depending on the effects being studied. Peruvian antivenom was more effective in the neutralization of lethality induced by B. atrox and B. barnetti venoms. However, Peruvian antivenom failed to neutralize coagulant activity of B. barnetti venom and edema-forming activity of B. brazili venom, whereas neutralization was achieved by Costa Rican antivenom. It is concluded that an extensive immunological cross-reactivity exists between Bothrops sp. venoms from Perú and Costa Rica, and that both antivenoms are effective in the neutralization of these four venoms in a rodent model of envenoming.
External link to the item10.1016/j.actatropica.2004.09.008
- Microbiología