Pathogenic mechanisms underlying adverse reactions induced by intravenous administration of snake antivenoms
León Montero, Guillermo
Herrera Vega, María
Segura Ruiz, Álvaro
Villalta Arrieta, Mauren
Vargas Arroyo, Mariángela
Gutiérrez, José María
MetadataShow full item record
Snake antivenoms are formulations of immunoglobulins, or immunoglobulin fragments, purified from the plasma of animals immunized with snake venoms. Their therapeutic success lies in their ability to mitigate the progress of toxic effects induced by snake venom components, when administered intravenously. However, due to diverse factors, such as deficient manufacturing practices, physicochemical characteristics of formulations, or inherent properties of heterologous immunoglobulins, antivenoms can induce undesirable adverse reactions. Based on the time lapse between antivenom administration and the onset of clinical manifestations, the World Health Organization has classified these adverse reactions as: 1 – Early reactions, if they occur within the first hours after antivenom infusion, or 2 – late reactions, when occurring between 5 and 20 days after treatment. While all late reactions are mediated by IgM or IgG antibodies raised in the patient against antivenom proteins, and the consequent formation of immune complexes, several mechanisms may be responsible for the early reactions, such as pyrogenic reactions, IgE-mediated reactions, or non IgE-mediated reactions. This work reviews the hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the mechanisms involved in these adverse reactions to antivenoms. The understanding of these pathogenic mechanisms is necessary for the development of safer products and for the improvement of snakebite envenomation treatment.
- Microbiología 
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Isolation and characterization of synergistic hemorrhagins from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper Borkow, Gadi; Gutiérrez, José María; Ovadia, Michael (1993-09)Three hemorrhagic factors (BaH1, BH2 and BH3) were isolated from the venom of Bothrops asper by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200, DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, metal chelate affinity chromatography and hydrophobic ...
Calderón Fuentes, Leonel; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Tarkowski, Andrej; Hanson, Lars Ake (1993-06)Vipera berus is widely distributed throughout the northern part of Europe and Asia. Characterization of several toxic effects of its venom in the mouse, as well as of in vitro enzymatic activities was performed. Vipera ...
Intravenous administration of equine-derived whole IgG antivenom does not induce early adverse reactions in non-envenomed horses and cows Estrada Umaña, Ricardo; Herrera Vega, María; Segura Ruiz, Álvaro; Araya, Javier; Boschini Figueroa, Carlos; Gutiérrez, José María; León Montero, Guillermo (2010-11)Administration of antivenoms to treat snakebite envenomings has the potential risk of inducing early adverse reactions. The mechanisms involved in these reactions are unclear. In this study, polyspecific antivenom consisting ...