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dc.creatorSolano Trejos, María Gabriela
dc.creatorLeón Montero, Guillermo
dc.creatorGómez Argüello, Aarón
dc.date.accessioned2019-04-08T15:12:07Z
dc.date.available2019-04-08T15:12:07Z
dc.date.issued2015-08-29
dc.identifier.citationhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041010115300453#!es_ES
dc.identifier.issn0041-0101
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10669/76877
dc.description.abstractSnake antivenoms are parenterally administered; therefore, endotoxin content must be strictly controlled. Following international indications to calculate endotoxin limits, it was determined that antivenom doses between 20 mL and 120 mL should not exceed 17.5 Endotoxin Units per milliliter (EU/ mL) and 2.9 EU/mL, respectively. The rabbit pyrogen test (RPT) has been used to evaluate endotoxin contamination in antivenoms, but some laboratories have recently implemented the LAL assay. We compared the capability of both tests to evaluate endotoxin contamination in antivenoms, and we found that both methods can detect all endotoxin concentrations in the range of the antivenom specifications. The acceptance criteria of RPT and LAL must be harmonized by calculating the endotoxin limit as the quotient of the threshold pyrogenic dose and the therapeutic dose and the dose administered to rabbits as the quotient of the threshold pyrogenic dose and the endotoxin limit. Since endotoxins from Gramnegative bacteria exert different pyrogenicity, if contamination occurred, antivenom batches that induce pyrogenic reactions may be found in spite of passing LAL specifications. Although LAL assay can be used to assess endotoxin content throughout the antivenom manufacturing process, we recommend that the release of final products be based on the results of both methods.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipUniversidad de Costa Rica/[741-A9-003]/UCR/Costa Ricaes_ES
dc.language.isoen_USes_ES
dc.sourceToxicon, vol. 105, pp. 13-18es_ES
dc.subjectAntivenomes_ES
dc.subjectEndotoxines_ES
dc.subjectLALes_ES
dc.subjectLimulus Amoebocyte Lysate testes_ES
dc.subjectPyrogenes_ES
dc.subjectRabbit pyrogen testes_ES
dc.subject597.96 Serpentes (Serpientes)es_ES
dc.subjectVeneno de serpientees_ES
dc.subjectSnake venomes_ES
dc.titleAssessing endotoxins in equine-derived snake antivenoms: Comparison of the USP pyrogen test and the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate assay (LAL)es_ES
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/articlees_ES
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.08.015
dc.description.procedenceUCR::Vicerrectoría de Investigación::Unidades de Investigación::Ciencias de la Salud::Instituto Clodomiro Picado (ICP)es_ES
dc.description.procedenceUCR::Vicerrectoría de Docencia::Salud::Facultad de Microbiologíaes_ES
dc.identifier.codproyecto741-A9-003


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