Birds in Coastal and Marine Environments
Barrantes Montero, Gilbert
Chaves Campos, J.
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In Costa Rican coastal and marine environments (e.g., estuaries, mud- flats, islands, open ocean) 96 bird species have been recorded, 11% of the total avifauna in the country. This high diversity is primarily explained by the complex topography of the coasts, the large variety of habitats available for coastal and marine birds, and Isla del Coco, a volcanic island that includes a particular marine avifauna. The Pacific coast, including Isla del Coco, possesses a much higher diversity of birds (93 species) than the Caribbean coast (54 species). This difference is likely explained by higher fluctuation in tides, larger extension, and greater topographical complexity on the Pacific coast. There are only 15 coastal or marine birds that reproduce (but not exclusively) in the country. From a conservation perspective, coastal and marine birds have received little attention in Costa Rica. Consequently, contamination, caused by pesticides, sewage, and solid trash, and habitat destruction, due to the construction of tourist infrastructure, seriously threaten the coastal and marine avifauna in Costa Rica.
- Biología