Increments in serum cytokine and nitric oxide levels in mice injected with Bothrops asper and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms
Petricevich, Vera L.
Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima
Tambourgi, Denise V.
Gutiérrez, José María
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Changes in serum levels of several cytokines and nitric oxide were studied in BALB/c mice injected intraperitoneally with one median lethal dose (LD(50)) of the venoms of Bothrops asper and Bothrops jararaca, two of the medically most important poisonous snakes of Latin America. Despite differences observed in the time-course of cytokine increments and in serum cytokine levels, both venoms induced prominent elevations of TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-gamma. There was an early increase in TNF-alpha and IL-1, followed by a more pronounced increment by 18 h. IL-6 levels peaked between 4 and 6 h, and this cytokine probably modulates the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 and the synthesis of acute-phase proteins. Both venoms induced an early increment in serum IL-10, whereas IFN-gamma levels reached higher values in mice injected with B. jararaca venom than in those receiving B. asper venom. Serum nitric oxide concentration increased in mice injected with both venoms rapidly after envenomation, remaining elevated for 24 h. It is concluded that a complex pattern of cytokine and nitric oxide synthesis and secretion occurs in severe experimental envenomation by B. asper and B. jararaca venoms. Furthermore, it is suggested that some of these mediators, particularly TNF-alpha, IL-1 and nitric oxide, might play a relevant role in the pathophysiology of systemic alterations induced by these venoms.
External link to the item10.1016/S0041-0101(99)00227-5
- Microbiología