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dc.creatorSolano Trejos, María Gabriela
dc.creatorPla Ferrer, Davinia
dc.creatorHerrera Vega, María
dc.creatorSegura Ruiz, Álvaro
dc.creatorVargas Arroyo, Mariángela
dc.creatorVillalta Arrieta, Mauren
dc.creatorSánchez Brenes, Andrés
dc.creatorSanz, Libia
dc.creatorLomonte, Bruno
dc.creatorLeón Montero, Guillermo
dc.creatorCalvete Chornet, Juan José
dc.creatorGutiérrez, José María
dc.description.abstractAnimal-derived antivenoms constitute the mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenoming. The efficacy of antivenoms to neutralize toxicity of medically-relevant snake venoms has to be demonstrated through meticulous preclinical testing before their introduction into the clinical setting. The gold standard in the preclinical assessment and quality control of antivenoms is the neutralization of venom-induced lethality. In addition, depending on the pathophysiological profile of snake venoms, the neutralization of other toxic activities has to be evaluated, such as hemorrhagic, myotoxic, edema-forming, dermonecrotic, in vitro coagulant, and defibrinogenating effects. There is a need to develop laboratory assays to evaluate neutralization of other relevant venom activities. The concept of the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) in Toxinology is of utmost importance, and some advances have been performed in their implementation. A significant leap forward in the study of the immunological reactivity of antivenoms against venoms has been the development of “antivenomics”, which brings the analytical power of mass spectrometry to the evaluation of antivenoms. International partnerships are required to assess the preclinical efficacy of antivenoms against snake venoms in different regions of the world in order to have a detailed knowledge on the neutralizing profile of these immunotherapeuticses_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipMinisterio de Economía y Competitividad/[BFU2013-42833-P]//Españaes_ES
dc.rightsCC0 1.0 Universal*
dc.sourceToxins, Vol 9(5), pp. 1-22es_ES
dc.subjectNeutralization testses_ES
dc.subjectPreclinical efficacyes_ES
dc.subjectThe 3Rses_ES
dc.subjectSnake venomes_ES
dc.titlePreclinical evaluation of the efficacy of antivenoms for snakebite envenoming: State-of-the-art and challenges aheades_ES
dc.typeartículo original
dc.description.procedenceUCR::Vicerrectoría de Investigación::Unidades de Investigación::Ciencias de la Salud::Instituto Clodomiro Picado (ICP)es_ES
dc.description.procedenceUCR::Vicerrectoría de Docencia::Salud::Facultad de Microbiologíaes_ES

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CC0 1.0 Universal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as CC0 1.0 Universal