Effects of choline chloride on the ruminal microbiome at 2 dietary neutral detergent fiber concentrations in continuous culture
Arce Cordero, José Alberto
Monteiro, Hugo Fernando
Jeong, Kwang C.
Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro
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Our objective was to evaluate the effects of unprotected choline chloride (Cho) on the ruminal microbiome at 2 dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations. We hypothesized that the effects of Cho on ruminal bacterial populations would depend on NDF. Eight dual-flow continuous-culture fermentors were arranged in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square as a 2 × 2 factorial with the following treatments: (1) 30% NDF-control (30% NDF diet, no supplemental choline); (2) 30% NDF-Cho (30% NDF diet plus 1.9 g of choline ion per kg of dry matter); (3) 40% NDF-control (40% NDF diet, no supplemental choline); and (4) 40% NDFCho (40% NDF diet plus 1.9 g of choline ion per kg of dry matter). We did 4 fermentation periods of 10 d each and used the last 3 d for collection of samples of solid and liquid digesta effluents for DNA extraction. Overall, 32 solid and 32 liquid samples were analyzed by amplification of the V4 variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA. Data were analyzed with R (R Project for Statistical Computing) and SAS (SAS Institute Inc.) to determine effects of Cho, NDF, and NDF × Cho on taxa relative abundance. The correlation of propionate molar proportion with taxa relative abundance was also analyzed. At the phylum level, relative abundance of Firmicutes in the liquid fraction tended to be greater when Cho was supplemented with a 30% NDF diet. At the order level, Cho increased Coriobacteriales in solid fraction and decreased Fibrobacterales in liquid fraction. Moreover, Cho decreased abundance of Clostridiales and increased Selenomonadales in the solid fraction, only with the 30% NDF diet. For genera, lower abundance of Pseudobutyrivibrio resulted from Cho in solid and liquid fractions. Greater abundance of Succinivibrio in solid and Selenomonas and Selenomonas 1 in liquid resulted from Cho with the 30% NDF diet. Propionate molar proportion was positively correlated with relative abundance of order Selenomonadales in solid and liquid fractions, and with genus Succinivibrio in solid and genera Selenomonas and Selenomonas 1 in liquid. Our results indicate that Cho primarily decreases abundance of bacteria involved in fiber degradation and increases abundance of bacteria mainly involved in nonstructural carbohydrate degradation and synthesis of propionate, particularly when a diet with 30% NDF is provided.
External link to the item10.3168/jds.2021-21591
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