Effects of unprotected choline chloride on microbial fermentation in a dual-flow continuous culture depend on dietary neutral detergent fiber concentration
Arce Cordero, José Alberto
Monteiro, Hugo Fernando
Phillips, Hannah N.
Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro
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Choline is usually supplemented as ruminally protected choline chloride to prevent its degradation in the rumen, but the effects of unprotected choline on ruminal fermentation are unclear. Some research indicates a possible role of dietary fiber on microbial degradation of choline; therefore we aimed to evaluate the effects of unprotected choline chloride on ruminal fermentation and to investigate whether those effects depend on dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration. Our hypothesis was that dietary NDF concentration would influence choline chloride effects on microbial ruminal fermentation. We used 8 fermentors in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, combining 2 factors: (1) dietary NDF concentration and (2) unprotected choline chloride supplementation. Resulting treatments are (1) 30%NDF/Ctrl [30% NDF control diet without supplemental choline (Cho)]; (2) 30%NDF/Cho [30% NDF diet plus 1.9 g of choline ion per kg of dry matter (DM)]; (3) 40%NDF/Ctrl (40% NDF control diet without supplemental choline); and (4) 40%NDF/Cho (40% NDF diet plus 1.9 g of choline ion per kg of DM). Four 10-d periods were completed, each consisting of 7 d for adaptation and 3 d for collection of samples for estimation of nutrient disappearance and daily average concentrations of volatile fatty acids and NH3-N. In addition, kinetics of pH, acetate, and propionate were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after morning feeding. On the last day of each period, bacteria pellets were harvested for 15N analysis and N metabolism. Fixed effects of dietary NDF concentration, unprotected choline chloride supplementation, and their interaction (NDF × Cho) were tested using the MIXED procedure of SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Choline tended to increase total volatile fatty acid concentrations and decreased acetate molar proportion regardless of dietary NDF concentration, but it increased propionate molar proportion and decreased acetate to propionate ratio only with the 30% NDF diet. Supplementing choline decreased NDF disappearance regardless of dietary NDF; however, organic matter disappearance tended to be re duced only when choline was added to 40% NDF. Our data indicate that unprotected choline chloride effects on ruminal fermentation depend on dietary NDF concentration, allowing for a greater propionate synthesis without decreasing organic matter disappearance when fed with a 30% NDF diet.
External link to the item10.3168/jds.2020-19089
La Universidad de Costa Rica apoyó el programa de doctorado de José Alberto Arce Cordero
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