Quantification of snake venom proteomes by mass spectrometry-considerations and perspectives.
Calvete Chornet, Juan José
Saviola, Anthony J.
Calderón Celis, Francisco
Ruiz Encinar, Jorge
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The advent of soft ionization mass spectrometry-based proteomics in the 1990s led to the development of a new dimension in biology that conceptually allows for the integral analysis of whole proteomes. This transition from a reductionist to a global-integrative approach is conditioned to the capability of proteomic platforms to generate and analyze complete qualitative and quantitative proteomics data. Paradoxically, the underlying analytical technique, molecular mass spectrometry, is inherently nonquantitative. The turn of the century witnessed the development of analytical strategies to endow proteomics with the ability to quantify proteomes of model organisms in the sense of “an organism for which comprehensive molecular (genomic and/or transcriptomic) resources are available.” This essay presents an overview of the strategies and the lights and shadows of the most popular quantification methods highlighting the common misuse of label-free approaches developed for model species' when applied to quantify the individual components of proteomes of nonmodel species (In this essay we use the term “non-model” organisms for species lacking comprehensive molecular (genomic and/or transcriptomic) resources, a circumstance that, as we detail in this review-essay, conditions the quantification of their proteomes.). We also point out the opportunity of combining elemental and molecular mass spectrometry systems into a hybrid instrumental configuration for the parallel identification and absolute quantification of venom proteomes. The successful application of this novel mass spectrometry configuration in snake venomics represents a proof-of-concept for a broader and more routine application of hybrid elemental/molecular mass spectrometry setups in other areas of the proteomics field, such as phosphoproteomics, metallomics, and in general in any biological process where a heteroatom (i.e., any atom other than C, H, O, N) forms integral part of its mechanism.
External link to the item10.1002/mas.21850
- Microbiología 
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