Developmental Enamel Lesions, classification in Costa Rican Individuals

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Murillo Knudsen, Gina
Berrocal Salazar, Cristina

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Universidad de Costa Rica

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The purpose of this study was to diagnose and classify developmental enamel lesions in patients examined at the School of Dentistry of the University of Costa Rica and the community of Llano Grande, Cartago. A total of 15 children (age range 9-17) and 2 adults from Costa Rican families were recruited. General medical and dental histories were elicited. Clinical examination was undertaken; dental radiographs and clinical photographs were obtained. Dental defects were classified according to possible genetic and non-genetic causes. Ethics Committee approval (N°440-B2-334) was obtained and the participants gave written informed consent. Imperfect hypoplastic or hypomineralized amelogénesis (AI) was diagnosed in 10 patients. Hypoplastic AI in 3 siblings was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance representing, 16% of the total sample. In a second family hypomineralized AI was identified in an adult and two of his children consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. The other 4 cases of AI were sporadic, 21% of total sample. Dental fluorosis [scores 4-5 Horowitz (TSIF)] were identified in 4 individuals, 4 from two unrelated families. Other, non-specific enamel defects were found in 3 individuals. Accurate classification of developmental enamel lesions helps the clinician and patient in making choices to preserve tooth tissue and optimize aesthetics focuses in appropriate restorative treatments, as well as understanding the likelihood of passing the condition on to their children. The study provides reliability in the genealogical based family studies, classification of enamel lesions and gives the structure for a future genetic evaluation.
The purpose of this study was to diagnose and classify developmental enamel lesions in patients examined at the School of Dentistry of the University of Costa Rica and the community of Llano Grande, Cartago. A total of 15 children (age range 9-17) and 2 adults from Costa Rican families were recruited. General medical and dental histories were elicited. Clinical examination was undertaken; dental radiographs and clinical photographs were obtained. Dental defects were classified according to possible genetic and non-genetic causes. Ethics Committee approval (N°440-B2-334) was obtained and the participants gave written informed consent. Imperfect hypoplastic or hypomineralized amelogénesis (AI) was diagnosed in 10 patients. Hypoplastic AI in 3 siblings was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance representing, 16% of the total sample. In a second family hypomineralized AI was identified in an adult and two of his children consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. The other 4 cases of AI were sporadic, 21% of total sample. Dental fluorosis [scores 4-5 Horowitz (TSIF)] were identified in 4 individuals, 4 from two unrelated families. Other, non-specific enamel defects were found in 3 individuals. Accurate classification of developmental enamel lesions helps the clinician and patient in making choices to preserve tooth tissue and optimize aesthetics focuses in appropriate restorative treatments, as well as understanding the likelihood of passing the condition on to their children. The study provides reliability in the genealogical based family studies, classification of enamel lesions and gives the structure for a future genetic evaluation. 

Palabras clave

amelogenesis imperfecta, diagnosis, lesions enamel, fluorosis, quality of life

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