Agronomía Costarricense 36(1)

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  • Ítem
    Evaluación de una fuente de enmienda líquida en el rendimiento del arroz en un Ultisol de la zona norte de Costa Rica
    (2013-05-28 14:57:02) Valerio Valerio, Juan Manuel; Molina Rojas, Eloy Alberto
    Se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de una enmienda calcárea líquida sobre el rendimiento del arroz y la fertilidad del suelo. El ensayo se realizó en un Ultisol de Los Chiles, Alajuela. Se utilizó una enmienda líquida que contiene 40% de Ca en forma de CaCO3 y 6,9% de N en forma de urea (Cal 56®). Los tratamientos fueron: testigo sin cal; Cal 56 8 l.ha-1; Cal 56 10 l.ha-1; y Cal 56 6 l.ha-1 + Nitro LL 4 l.ha-1. El Nitro LL es un fertilizante líquido de liberación controlada, que contiene 33% de N. Los produc tos fueron aplicados con bomba de espalda, con un volumen de caldo de 200 l.ha-1, en forma de aspersión al suelo 8 días después de germinado el arroz. Se utilizaron parcelas de 10x10 m, con un diseño experimental de Bloques Completos al Azar, con 4 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones. No hubo diferencias significativas con las variables tamaño de panícula en cm, número de espigas por panícula, número total de granos por panícula, número de granos llenos, número de granos vanos y peso de 1000 granos, aunque la mayoría de estas variables presentaron valores más altos que el testigo con la aplicación de enmienda líquida. Hubo diferencias significativas (p<0,01) en la variable de rendimiento de arroz en granza. La dosis de 8 l.ha-1 de Cal 56 presentó el mejor rendimiento agronómico. La dosis de 10 l.ha-1 de Cal 56 incrementó levemente el contenido de Ca y la CICE del suelo.
  • Ítem
    Determinación del color en epicarpio de tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum mill.) con sistema de visión computarizada durante la maduración
    (2013-05-28 14:57:02) Padrón Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Padrón León, Gisel Marié; Montes Hernández, Adriana Isabel; Oropeza González, Rafael Antonio
    Color determination in tomato epicarp using Computer Vision System during ripening. The evolution of color in tomatoes samples, during ripening under refrigeration or at room temperature, was studied by Computer Vision System (CVS). CVS consisted in a lighted stage, a CCD digital camera and a computer (Laptop), all calibrated. The digital processing of images was performed with the Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 Extended software, with which averaged images on L*, a* and b* coordinates were obtained. The proceeding tested, using CVS, allowed to study the variations of color during the ripening of tomatoes from images, by means of rectangular coordinates (L*, a*, b*). The ratio a*/b* and polar coordinates (c*, ho), showing statistically significant differences between samples determined (p<0,05).
  • Ítem
    Modificación de olfatómetros de cuatro brazos para experimentación en broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    (2013-05-28 14:57:02) Pacheco, Arturo; Blanco Metzler, Helga; Mora Castro, Rebeca
    Modification of fourarm olfactometers to be used with the coffee borer Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei is considered to be a major pest in coffee producing countries worldwide. As in many insects, the behavior of the coffee borer is modified through aromatic signals. This has triggered important research within the different approaches of olfactometry. Two new innovative designs of olfactometers were evaluated to be used on H. hampei for this research. The olfactometers were built of glass and differ in the angular distribution of their arms and in the insect’s inlet and adaptation zone. A mixture of methanol-ethanol 3:1, with proven attraction properties, was used to evaluate the functionality of these olfactometers. The bioassays were performed using only adult females of H. hampei. On the 90º olfactometer, 45% of the insects were strongly attracted to the arm comprised of the alcohol mixture. In the case of the 30º olfactometer the positive behavior response was only of 1.5%. During the assays it was observed that the different insect insertion strategies into the olfactometers and the adaptation area had a major influence on results. During the second stage of this research, the 90º olfactometer was evaluated through a comparison of the average attraction of each of its 4 arms; there were no significant differences (p<=0.05) in attraction response of H. hampei between arms of the device. It is concluded that the 90º olfactometer design is suitable to develop volatile-compound attraction assays on adult females of H. hampei.
  • Ítem
    Efecto de la colocación de dispositivos elásticos de hule, en las manos superiores del racimo de banano, sobre la conformación de la mano, el rechazo de frutos y la relación cajas-racimo
    (2013-05-28 14:57:02) Vargas, Alfonso
    Effect of rubber plastic bands, placed on banana’s bunch upper hands, on the conformation of the hand, the rejection of fruits and the relationship boxes-bunch. The effect of rubber elastic bands (REB) placed on the newly exposed 5 upper hands of the banana bunch was evaluated, from December 2006 to April 2008, on the conformation of the hand, the rejection of fruits and the number of boxes per bunch (‘ratio’). REB lasted 4 to 6 (experiment 1), 6 to 8 (experiments 2 and 3), 6 to 8 and more than 8 (experiment 4) and more than 8 (experiment 5) weeks. Bunches without REB were used as the untreated control treatment. In most hands where REB was tested, the curvature of the fruit did not differ (p>0.0934) and the distance (at 90 degrees) from the apex of the inner-row central fruit of the hand to the rachis remained unchanged (p>0.0672), as compared with the control. Nevertheless, when in the latter variable differences were expressed (p<0.0414), a reduction of the distance with de use of REB was always observed. The percentage of deformed fruits, except for the highest value (p<0.0389) of some hands in experiments 1, 2, 3 and 5, did not differ between treatments (p>0.0627). The different factors of fruit rejection, especially those related to deformity or injuries by friction between fingers during growth (growth scar), were not affected by the use of REB in any of the experiments where this was evaluated. The number of boxes obtained from the 5 upper hands of the bunch did not allow to show whether REB significantly affected yield.
  • Ítem
    Fertilización con N, P, K y S, y curvas de absorción de nutrimentos en arroz var. CFX 18 en Guanacaste
    (2013-05-28 14:57:02) Molina Rojas, Eloy Alberto; Rodríguez, José Hernán
    N, P, K, and S fertilization and nutrient absorption curves on rice var. CFX 18 in Guanacaste. An experiment of fertilization with N, P, K and S on rice (cv. CFX 18) was evaluated under flooded conditions in a Eutric Inceptisol in Guanacaste; also, the absorption curve of macro and micronutrients during the growing season was determined. The treatments were 0, 80, 120 and 160 kg.ha-1 of N; 0, 40 and 80 kg.ha-1 of P2O5; 0 and 50 kg.ha-1 of K2O, and 0 and 20 kg.ha-1 of S, for a total of 8 treatments with 4 replicates, in a randomized complete block design. Foliar analysis was performed at pre-flowering, and the yield of dry and clean grain was determined at harvest. In the treatment of 120 kg.ha-1 of N, 40 kg.ha-1 of P2O5, 50 kg.ha-1 of K2O, and 20 kg.ha-1 of S, 5 whole-plant samples were taken at 28, 43, 66, 79 and 93 days after germination, for dry weight determination and chemical analysis of nutrients and for development of the absorption curves as a function of plant age. There was a significant response in yield to N, P, K and S. The treatment of 120 kg.ha1 of N, 40 kg.ha-1 of P2O5, 50 kg.ha-1 of K2O, and 20 kg.ha-1 of S presented the highest grain yield, in a soil that had an adequate content of P and K, but low in S. These same treatments brought about the higher foliar contents of N and P and were significantly different from treatments with no N and no P. The nutrient absorption curve was directly related to biomass production. Most of the absorption of nutrients occurred during the reproductive and ripening stages. The maximum absorption of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S was 61, 25, 197, 17, 11 and 9 kg.ha-1, respectively.
  • Ítem
    Fenología, producción y valor nutritivo del pasto alpiste (phalaris arundinacea) en la zona alta lechera de Costa Rica
    (2013-05-28 14:57:02) Villalobos Villalobos, Luis Alonso
    Phenology, yield and nutritional value of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) in dairy farms in the highlands of Costa Rica. Dry matter yield, nutritional value and phenology of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) were evaluated with three harvest ages (49, 70 and 91 days), during a year and a half, in a commercial dairy farm in the district of Santa Rosa de Oreamuno, Cartago Province. Average dry-matter yield was 3101 kg.ha-1.regrowth-1 period. Average nutritional value was 17.77% CP, 55.89% NDF, 35.93% ADF, 4.14% lignin and 66.87% IVDMD on dry-matter basis. Estimated energy content expressed as TDN, DE, ME, NEL (3X) and NEG was 63.07%, 2.76, 2.13, 1.31 and 0.81 Mcal.kg-1 of DM, respectively. CP fractioning of African star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), were compared with that of reed canary grass; the main contribution was obtained from the insoluble degradable fraction (B2+B3) in the temperate species, while african star grass had a higher contribution from the degradable fraction (A+B1). Average phenological stage of reed canary grass was 5.96 green leaves per regrowth and its leaf stage must be 5 to 6 leaves to optimize dry matter yield and nutritional value. Reed canary grass has been used in several dairy farms and has gained importance as an option that can withstand the weather conditions in the highlands of Costa Rica; olso, there are already companies importing sexual seed of this species.
  • Ítem
    Identificación molecular del hongo Colletotrichum spp., aislado de banano (Musa spp) de altura en la zona de Turrialba y determinación de su sensibilidad a fungicidas poscosecha
    (2013-05-28 14:57:02) Salazar, Eduardo; Hernández, Ramses; Tapia, Ana María; Gómez Alpízar, Luis
    Molecular identification of the fungus Colletotrichum spp., isolated from banana (Musa spp) in high lands from Turrialba and determination of their sensitivity to postharvest fungicides. Anthracnose is one of the most serious banana post-harvest diseases. A total of 25 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from banana fruits grown in 5 areas in Turrialba County, Costa Rica; 5 isolates per area. Isolates were characterized on the basis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species- specific primers of the ITS region and ß-tubulin, gene, and their in vitro sensitivities to the fungicides thiabendazole, imazalil and myclobutanil at 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 y 100.0 μg.ml-1. All isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and were sensitive to thiabendazole, whereas most isolates showed a marked reduction in sensitivity to imazalil and myclobutanil.
  • Ítem
    Consumo, calidad nutricional y digestibilidad aparente de morera (Morus alba) y pasto estrella (Cynodon nlemfuensis) en cabras
    (2013-05-28 14:57:02) Rodríguez Zamora, Jessie; Elizondo Salazar, Jorge Alberto
    Intake, nutritional quality, and apparent digestibility of mulberry (Morus alba) and star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) in goats. The quality, selection, intake, and apparent digestibility of mulberry and star grass in goats, offered fresh or partially dehydrated, were evaluated. The experiment was carried out at the “Alfredo Volio Mata” Experiment Station of the University of Costa Rica. Harvested forage was fed to 12 Saanen, Toggenburg and Lamancha non-lactating and non-pregnant goats, distributed in a randomized 2x2 factorial design, with an average live weight of 37±5 kg. The treatments were a) fresh star grass, b) partially dehydrated star grass, c) fresh mulberry, and d) partially dehydrated mulberry. Forage was offered chopped to the animals. Dry matter intake was 0.93, 0.76, 1.17 and 1.12 kg.animal-1.day-1 (±0.09) for fresh star grass, partially dehydrated star grass, fresh mulberry, and partially dehydrated mulberry, respectively. This represented 2.62, 2.09, 3.17 and 3.13% (±0.24) of body weight. Crude protein intake was lower with partially dehydrated star grass and higher with fresh mulberry (75.2 vs. 135.4 g.animal-1.day-1). Apparent digestibility was not statistically different between treatments; it was on average 49.18% for DM, 59.82% for CP, 57.83% for NDF, and 55.30% for ADF. This study demonstrates that the forage species significantly affects voluntary dry matter intake in goats; however, dry matter content of the forages used in this study did not affect DM intake.